Volume 4, Issue 4, August 2019, Page: 80-87
Flow Pattern and Hydraulic Parameter Characteristics of the Different Topographic Position in the Small Catchment
Wang Lingling, Yellow River Institute of Hydraulic Research, Key Laboratory of the Loess Plateau Soil Erosion and Water Loss Process and Control of Ministry of Water Resources, Zhengzhou, China
Zuo Zhongguo, Yellow River Institute of Hydraulic Research, Key Laboratory of the Loess Plateau Soil Erosion and Water Loss Process and Control of Ministry of Water Resources, Zhengzhou, China
Lou Xuan, Yellow River Institute of Hydraulic Research, Key Laboratory of the Loess Plateau Soil Erosion and Water Loss Process and Control of Ministry of Water Resources, Zhengzhou, China
Huang Jing, Yellow River Institute of Hydraulic Research, Key Laboratory of the Loess Plateau Soil Erosion and Water Loss Process and Control of Ministry of Water Resources, Zhengzhou, China
Hou Xinxin, Yellow River Institute of Hydraulic Research, Key Laboratory of the Loess Plateau Soil Erosion and Water Loss Process and Control of Ministry of Water Resources, Zhengzhou, China
Received: Jul. 2, 2019;       Published: Aug. 27, 2019
DOI: 10.11648/j.ijeee.20190404.13      View  26      Downloads  6
Abstract
Flow pattern and hydraulic parameter characteristics of the different topographic position in the “slope-gully-basin” system under the rainfall intensities of 60, 90 and 120 mm/h using generalized small watershed model with the simulated rainfall experiment. The results show that the increase of the rainfall intensity will result in the increase of the Reynolds number. During the whole experiment, only when the rainfall intensity is 60 mm/h, the flow pattern of the hilly-slope is laminar flow. The flow patterns of the other geomorphic position are all turbulent flow. Moreover, the Reynolds number of slope flow is much less than that of channel flow. With the increase of rainfall intensity, flow patterns of the all different geomorphic position changed from the stratum flow into torrent flow. Furthermore, the Froude number increases first and then decreases with the increase of rainfall intensity. For the resistance coefficient of the overland flow, with the increase of rainfall intensity, the resistance coefficient of overland flow and channel flow decreases obviously. For the spatial distribution of resistance coefficient, the maximum occurs at the hilly-slope and the minimum at the channel.
Keywords
Topographic Position, Flow Pattern, Hydraulic Parameter, Simulated Rainfall, Generalized Small Watershed Model
To cite this article
Wang Lingling, Zuo Zhongguo, Lou Xuan, Huang Jing, Hou Xinxin, Flow Pattern and Hydraulic Parameter Characteristics of the Different Topographic Position in the Small Catchment, International Journal of Economy, Energy and Environment. Vol. 4, No. 4, 2019, pp. 80-87. doi: 10.11648/j.ijeee.20190404.13
Reference
[1]
Jiang, D. L.; Zhao, C. X.; Chen, Z. L. The preliminary analysis of sediment sources in the watersheds of the middle Yellow River. Acta Geographica Sinica 1966, 32, 20-36. (In Chinese)
[2]
Liang G. L, Chen Hao, Cai Q. G, et al. Research progress of modern topographic evolvement and landform erosion in Loess Plateau. Research of Soil and Water Conservation. 2004, 11 (4): 131-137. (In Chinese)
[3]
Liu, P. L. The current status in establishing the prototype observation network for soil and water losses in hilly Loess Plateau. Soil and Water Conservation in China 2005, 12-13. (In Chinese)
[4]
Jiao J. Y, Liu Y. B, Tang K. L. An approach to runoff and sediment generation of gully and intergully land in small watershed. Journal of soil and water conservation. 1992, 6 (2): 24-28. (In Chinese)
[5]
Shi Z. H, Song C. Q. Water erosion processes: a historical review. Journal of soil and water conservation. 2016, 30 (5): 1-10. (In Chinese)
[6]
Gao G. Y, Zhang J. J, Liu Y, et al. Spatio-temporal patterns of the effects of precipitation variability and land use/cover changes on long-term changes in sediment yield in the Loess Plateau, China. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci, 2017, 21: 4363-4378.
[7]
Gonzalo Martinez, Mark Weltz, Frederick B. Pierson et al. Scale effects on runoff and soil erosion in rangelands: Observations and estimations with predictors of different availability. Catena, 2017, 151: 161-173.
[8]
Philipp Baumgart, Anette Eltner, Alexander R. Scale dependent soil erosion dynamics in a fragile loess landscape. Zeitschrift fur Geomorphologie, 2017, 61: 191-206.
[9]
Wang, L. L.; Yao, W. Y.; Tang, J. L.; Wang, W. L.; Hou, X. X. Identifying the driving factors of sediment delivery ratio on individual flood events in a long-term monitoring headwater basin. Journal of Mountain Science 2018, 15, 1825-1835.
[10]
Wang W. L, Lei A. L, Li Z. B, et al. Study on dynamic mechanism of rill, shallow furrows and gully in the soil erosion chain. Advance in water science. 2003, 14 (4): 471-475. (In Chinese)
[11]
Ding, W. F.; Li, M.; Zhang, P. C.; et al. Experimental study on the sediment yield characteristics in slope-gully system. Transactions of the CSAE 2006, 22, 10-14. (In Chinese)
[12]
Xiao P. Q, Zheng F. L, Yao W. Y. Flow pattern and hydraulic parameter characteristics in hillyslope-gullyslope system. Advance in water science. 2009, 20 (2): 236-240. (In Chinese)
[13]
Wang, Z. L.; Wu, Y. H.; Bai, Z. G.; Guo, B. W.; Zhao, G. Y. Study on Soil Erosion in Typical Regions of Loess Plateau. World Scientific-Technology Research & Development 2000, 76-79. (In Chinese)
[14]
Yu, G. Q.; Li, Z. B.; Zhang, X.; et al. Numerical simulation of gravitational erosion in slope-gully system on Loess Plateau [J]. Acta Pedologica Sinica 2010, 47, 809-816. (In Chinese)
[15]
Zhang P, Yao W. Y, Tang H. W, et al. Evolution and quantization method of rill morphology on the slope under rainfall simulation. Advance in water science, 2015, 26 (1): 52-59. (In Chinese)
[16]
Zhai J., Lu X. N, Xiong D. H, et al. Review on the research progress of hydrodynamic characteristics and their influencing factors for the runoff of soil erosion, Safety and environmental engineering. 2012.5: 1-5, 9. (In Chinese)
[17]
Sun L, Zhang G. H, Luan L. L et al. Temporal variation in soil resistance to flowing water erosion for soil incorporated with plant litters in the Loess Plateau of China [J]. CATENA. 2016. 145: 239-245.
[18]
Lei A. L, Tang K. L. Rainfall Similarity in Soil Erosion Model Test and Its Realization. Chinese science bulletin. 1995. 40 (21): 2004-2006. (In Chinese)
[19]
Lei A. L, Shi Y. X, Tang K. L. Soil Similarity in Soil Erosion Model Experiments. Chinese science bulletin. 1996. 41 (19): 1801-1804. (In Chinese)
[20]
Xie Y. Y, Fan D. M, Wang L. L, et al. Artificial rainfall of indoor small watershed model automatic measurement of channel flow velocity and data processing. Yellow River, 2015. 37 (3): 100-102. (In Chinese)
[21]
Wu Y. P, Xie Y. Zhang W. B. Comparison of different methods for estimating average annual rainfall erosivity. Journal of soil and water conservation. 2001, 15 (3): 31-34. (In Chinese)
[22]
Zhang Q, Zhang J. R, Zhou Y. Study on flow characteristics in step-down floor for energy dissipation of hydraulic Jump. South-to-North water transfers and water science & technology. 2008, 6 (3): 74-75, 96. (In Chinese)
[23]
Liang X. L, Zhao LS, Wu J, et al. Simulation of response law for soil surface roughness and hydraulics parameters of runoff. Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering.2014, 30 (19): 123-131. (In Chinese)
[24]
Zhou S. M; Lei T. W; Warrington David N. et al. Does watershed size affect simple mathematical relationships between flow velocity and discharge rate at watershed outlets on the Loess Plateau of China. Journal of Hydrology. 2012. 444-445: 1-9.
[25]
Wang L. L, Zuo Z. G, Sun W. Y et al. Geomorphic evolution characteristics of different topographic units in small watershed. Yellow River, 2018, 40 (6): 100-104. (In Chinese)
Browse journals by subject